عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Objective: In the history of medicine, the surgical branch of Islamic medicine has been less
widely studied, Therefore, the purpose of this study was to show some of the important and influential achievements
of the Islamic Surgeons in this field. Regarding the wide range of subjects, the renal-urinary organs were selected
until The elegance and sensibility of these organs have shown more angles than the innovations of this period.
Methods and Materials: Research Methodology have been Qualitative and descriptive-analytic type And with
this method The content of the reference texts of surgical knowledge of the Islamic period has been reviewed
critically and analyzed. Accordingly, the index and reference works of this period have been completed With this
aim The period of the 3rd century AH, the beginning of original publications in this area until the 13th century
AH, which the introduction of modern medicine into the Islamic world, was chosen. Then The principles and
techniques of the surgeon have been thoroughly investigated; Then the principles and techniques of the surgeons
in the field of renal, bladder, and urethral surgery have been analyzed. Eventually, By inductive method, The
basic principles and techniques of this area are outlined.
Results: The basic and consistent principles of surgery have been included: Differential diagnosis,
precautionary measures, prevention of bleeding: such as hot flashes, sitting in a water pool, spraying styptic
compounds, phlebotomy and closure of the wound site. After surgery, the principles of health at the surgical
site were also emphasized by all surgeons. The findings of this research have suggested the following surgical
procedures for the renal-edema organs: Cauterize of kidney and bladder with Hot Tools, Cauterize different
hernia, Splitting with the technique of removing the inner fluid, lift and split, Split from width, Of course in this
period Because of the huge dangers, is not used from cut off technique.
Conclusion:The research results confirmed this assumption That Some basic principles and techniques have
been accepted at this time from the East to the West of the Islamic World. In the field of surgical techniques,
three main methods were: Cauterize, splitting, and cutting And in this context, constant principles also included:
Differential Diagnosis, Observing the moral principle of non-harming the patient, Avoid bleeding, stitching and
disinfecting the wound site.