عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: One of the questions, Related to Fetus and barrenness curement, is about the criteria
of being a human and Fetus as a single sole. Clarification of this subject, besides the determination of
a verdict for abortion and its blood money, will be helpful in the discussion of fetus selection. The Fetus
undergoes stages such as Zigoot, morulla, pre-fetus, and Fetus. So it is vital to determine in which of these
stages, it can be considered a mean of single sole and a proper verdict will be driven from it. Again, before
that stage, is it imperative to respect the fetus and to protect it.
Materials and method: This research is analytic and library-oriented. At first we have discussed the
criteria of a single sole from western’s points of view. Then we did the same regarding Islamic Jurisprudent
Discussion and Finding: Western thinkers-to consider Fetus a single sole-have suggested various
criteria such Fecundation, placenta, the brain waves reflection, Fetus durability, and its birth. So, great
diversities in their criteria tell us they don’t have any acceptable criteria to determine what human really is.
Rather, Divine theology, besides clarifying necessary principles to identify human being, has determined
the stages that a being passes to become a man. He undergoes various stages such as: minerals, plant life,
animal life, till envolves into an actual man. Based on these foundations, in theology, Shiite; jurisprudents
have determined the verdicts of abortion in any above named stages.
Conclusion: To respect Fetus and to protect unnecessary abortion on a hand, and its lack of human
characteristics, on the hand, has led to diversal opinions, among western thinkers, of what a single sole
is. Islam has not faced this problem since its perfect Jurisprudence has primarily introduced a very exact
criterion. The comparison between what the Jurisprudents say and what Divine theology claims, indicates
the harmony between Shiite Jurisprudents and this school of thought. Jurisprudent doesn’t need to rely on
philosophy to solve this problem. It is responsive by itself. However, its answer is in the agreement with that
of Mulla Sadra; of course, each follows its own method. Rather, western thinkers, to find a solution to the
question of “fetus as a single sole”, have clung to philosophy but philosophy is not capable of providing an